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Author Topic: Zapata Westerns  (Read 45485 times)
cigar joe
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« Reply #15 on: October 17, 2005, 06:04:54 AM »

We have a great little used book store here in the Hudson Valley, it's only name is "Books" and it looks like an old factory building but its interior is a mase of rooms and passages that sort out different subjects. Managed to find a book on the history of Mexico that sheds a lot of light on the MexRev.

The book is "A History of Mexico" by Henry Banford Parkes, I finally got a good understanding of what was going on and in the next few days I'll add to this mono-thread, lol, guess I'm breakin' trail on this topic.

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« Reply #16 on: October 17, 2005, 05:58:15 PM »

A brief history of MexRev:

Diaz had been in power in Mexico from the end of 1876. A group called the cientificos represented the generation that grew up since the Reform.

They believed above all things in progress by science, and in material developement. Development that would be neasured by the output of mines and factories, and the mileage of railroads and telegraph lines. The regarded Mexicans as a backwards race, Mexico should be governed by white men and it should be civilized by foreign capitol. Towards the end of Diaz reign they began to surround the dictator functioning as the intermediaries in the imposition of Anglo-Saxon capitalism upon Mexico.

The Diaz government had originally been a mestizo government, Diaz, a majority of his cabinet and the state governors had been mestizos. For 46 years Diaz had never lost a bond of sympathy with the Indian peasants among whom he had been born. During its last decade the Diaz administration became increasingly creole, creoles who had entered the country since the independence (Maximillian).

Mexican capatilism was imposed upon the hacienda system under which half the rural population was bound to dept-slavery. The task of destroying the hacienda and of rescuing the indians from peonage was a dream of the Reform but it had never been accomplished.

Instead of breaking up the haciendas among small Indian owners the Reform had mearly transfered them to the greedy mestizos. The result was that by 1910 nearly half of Mexico belonged to less than 3000 families, while of the ten million Mexicans engaged in agriculture, nine and a half million were without land.

The new industialization however created a new class, the working class who were paid more and began to learn new ideas. At the same time patriotic Mexicans began to resent the privilages given to foreign capitol.

American interests included the enormous Hearst cattle ranches along the US border, the Guggenheim metalurgical interests, US Steel, Anaconda Corp., Standard Oil, owned 3/4 of the mines, and more than half the oil fields, investments amounting to more than a billion dollars.

English interests were oil, precious metals, sugar , and coffee. The French owned most of the textile mills. The Spanish monopolized retail trade, acquired large haciendas , and owned tobacco fields.

The railroads, considered the greatest achievement of Diaz's dictatorship had not been supervised by the Mexican Government, the American builders had chosen their own routes, connecting Mexico City with the US, while the remainder of the country was still dependent on mule caravans.

Mexicans were used only as unskilled labor. Mexicans who struck for higher wages or who complained were shot down. Staring in 1907 Mexico was less prosperous,  in 1909 there was a bad harvest, the peasants were dying of hunger.

In a serious miscalculation Diaz gave an interview to American reporter Creelman. In it Diaz said that his purpose was to guide Mexico to democracy, and tha Mexico was now ready for freedom. It was only concieved for American consumption but it reached the people of Mexico. 

This stirred up opposition. Francisco Madero founded a newspapaer and organized an anti-re-electionist clubs. A convention was held in April 1910 at which Madero was nominated for the presidency. In May 30,000 Madero supporters demonstrated  outside the National Palace. In June Madero was thrown in jail.

 

« Last Edit: October 17, 2005, 06:01:23 PM by cigar joe » Logged

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« Reply #17 on: October 17, 2005, 06:02:57 PM »

The image below is a visual aid to the Mexican Revolution the map is based on an 1890 railway map of Mexico.


« Last Edit: October 17, 2005, 06:06:54 PM by cigar joe » Logged

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« Reply #18 on: October 17, 2005, 07:31:17 PM »

MexRev Phase 1

Follow the action by the numbers.

1. Madero's political activities end with him in prison.
2. His family bails him out of prison after Diaz is re-
    elected, and Madero slips into the US. He sets up
    shop in San Antonio, Texas. There he calls for a
    general uprising on November 20th. Promised an
    armed force Madero re-enters Mexico in
    the state of Coahuila, he finds 25 men waiting for him
    half of them unarmed. He heads back into Texas. In
    Jalisco, Tlaxcala, and the Federal District there were
    futile uprisings easily suppressed. In despair Madero
    heads for New Orleans and plans to sail for Europe.
3. In Chihuahua a state of cattle ranches ruled & owned
    by the Terrazas family. In 1910 its governor was
    Alberto Terraxas, a young man who had seduced his
    own niece. Abraham Gonzalez recruited bodies of
    cavalry among the vaqueros and he discovered
    able guerrilla leaders. In southern Chihuahua a
    storekeeper Pascual Orozco, took command and with
    him was a bandit chieftain who as a boy had
    escaped from peonage on a hacienda in
    Durango, knew every inch of Chihuahua, and had
    made himself a local hero by rustling Terrazas cattle,
    he was Pancho Villa. On November 27 Orozco
    defeated the federales at Pedernales. Orozco & Villa
    controled southern Chihuahua, and they rode
    northwards cutting the rail line between Chihuahua
    City and Ciudad Juarez. Madero joins the rebels in
    Chihuahua. As this news spreads there are more
    rebellions. In Morelos Emiliano Zapata, begins to
    recruit Indian peons from the sugar plantations and   
    attacks haciendados.
4. Gonzales, Orozco, and Villa besiege General Navarro
    in Ciudad Juarez in March.
5. In April 1911 guerillas attack in Sonora, Sinaloa,   
    Durango, Puebla, Guerrero, Vera Cruz, Tabasco,
    Oxaca, and Yucatan. The US government amasses 
    20,000 troops along the border. A short armistice
    disintergrates when the federales and the
    revolutionaries outside Ciudad Juarez begin to shoot
    at each other.
6. The shooting turns into a general battle Orozco and
    Villa begin to take the town street by street blowing
    holes in walls with dynamite, on May 10th Navarro
    surrenders. Madero saves Navarro from a firing
    squad by personally conducting hin across the border.
    Orozco and Villa then attempt to arrest Madero.
    Madero saves himself by haranguing their troops.
7. Zapata and his peon army take the town of Cuautla
    in Morelos. State captitols begin to fall to guerrilla
    leaders and mobs. On May 12 in Ciudad Juarez at
    10:30 PM over a table lit up by the arc-lights of
    automobiles an agreement for the resignation of Diaz
    is signed. Francisco de la Bara was to become
    provisinal president and after an election Madero
    would succeed him.
8. On May 26 Diaz leaves Mexico City on a train for Vera
    Cruz and eventually Europe.

   

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« Reply #19 on: October 18, 2005, 08:56:38 PM »

MexRev Phase II

Follow the action by the numbers again  Cool

1. De la Barra as provisional president ment that the
    original drive of the revolution was checked. The
    revolutionary troops and the guerrillas were
    disbanded. Mexico would have to wait for a new
    president and the slow process of legal reforms. 
    Madero took office on November 6 and the Mexican
    people expected miracles, but none came. Zapata in   
    Morelos waited for the fulfilment of the Plan of San
    Luis Potosi which contained a clause promising the
    restoration to the Indian villages of the land illegally
    taken from them. At the end of November Zapata, 
    standing on a table in a mountian hut proclaimed that
    the peasants must take the land themselves and
    guard them with arms in their hands. Madero sends
    generals to Morelos.
2. Orozco revolts in Chihuahua in February 1912,
    Madero sends General Salas against him, Salas is
    defeated, he is succeded by General Victoriano
    Huerta, a heavy drinker, Huerta crushes the rebellion
    and Orozco flees to exile in Arizona. Villa at this time
    had entered the legitimate meat business in
    Chihuahua. During this rebellion Villa loyal to Madero
    had actually served under Huerta, during the rebellion
    Huerta ordered that Villa should be court martialed
    and shot for disobedience. Madero reprieves Villa and
    he is imprissioned in Mexico City. Villa escapes to
    coast and flees to Texas.
3. In Vera Cruz Felix Diaz nephew of Porfirio rebells but
    is captured and condemmed to death by court
    martial, Madero refuses to have him shot and puts
    him in prison. US ambassador reports to Washington
    that Madero did not propose to grant favors to
    American capitol and that Mexico was "seething with
    discontent". President Taft stations 100,000 troops
    along the border, and American gun-runners are
    shipping arms to Zapata.
4. Feburary 9-18, a coup d'etat by Reyes & Felix Diaz &
    generals against Madero, Huerta betrays both sides
    and positions himself as provisional president.
    In the history of villians of Mexican Revolution Huerta
    was the worst. An able general with a magnetic
    personality, but also a drunkard, and a dope
    addict. On the evening of the 22nd Madero and his
    vice president Suarez were taken out of their
    carriages and shot. Official;y is was reported that an
    armed force attempted to rescue them and they were
    accidently killed in the confusion.
     


5. On Feburary 19 in the state of Coahuila, Venustiano
    Carranza announced that he would not recognize
    Huerta as president. Carranza had a small body of
    troops commanded by Pablo Gonzalez.

to be continued....

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« Reply #20 on: October 22, 2005, 08:35:54 AM »

Continued....
5. Gonzales however only met with defeat Carranza
    assumes the title of First Chief of the Constitutional
    Army.
6. In Sonora however Alvaro Obergon and Roberto
    Presquiera rebel on Feb., 26 and with able
    lieutenants Elias Calles, Benjamin Hill, Savator
    Alverado and Francisco Serrano capture all of Sonora
    except  the town of Guayamas.
7. The Sonoran Gov. also recognizes Carranza as "First
    Chief". Carranza heads to Sonora across the
    mountians of Durango & Sinaloa and establishes
    himself in Nogales.
8. Villa at midnight on March 13, 1913 swims his horse
    across the Rio Grande and recruits an army from
    among the vaqueros of Chihuahua., in the spring and
    summer Villa defeats the federales in six pitched
    battles and took control of all the state except the
    cities. In Autumn Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by
    steaming right into town on a troop train. He then
    steams south and takes Chihuahua City.
9. In the south Zapata's insurrection spreads to the
    seacoast and into Puebla. They were never an army
    per se, but they burnt the haciendas and
    redistributed the land taking up arms only to defend
    land as they spread.

To be continued......

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« Reply #21 on: October 24, 2005, 07:38:21 PM »

Follow the action continues.....

10. US involvement in the revolution was the last thing
      most Mexican Revolutionaries wanted. To protect
      Americans, and American interests and investments
      of the Rockerfellers (Standard Oil) the Guggenheims
      (metalurgical) the Hearsts (cattle ranches) and
      others the US places an arms embargo on Mexico,
      this opened up the market to arms dealers from
      around the world, though a lot of illeagal arms deals
      still went through the US borders. A crew from an
      American Warship is arrested in Tampico and the US
      sends the fleet into the Gulf of Mexico and siezes
      Mexican Ports. General Huerta stupidly threatens to
      invade Texas, and Pres. Wilson lifts arms embargo.
      This greatly strengthens Villa and Obregon.
11. Obregon sweeps south of Sonora into Sinnaloa
      down to Jalisco.
12. Villa steams south in 5 troop trains takes the
      important railway town of Torreon, turns East &
      cleans out the rest of Coahuila of federal troops.
      Then continues South through Durango and captures
      Zacatecas.
13 .Villa and Carranza differences come to a head and
      they finally break appart from each other.
      Carranza is able to embargo Villas coal supply out of
      Coahuila. Villa without coal is stranded.
14  Obregon pushes through mountians and captures
      Guadalajara, then makes his way down the plateau
      to capture Queretaro. Huerta resigns office. End of
      MexRev Phase II.






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« Reply #22 on: October 30, 2005, 03:20:12 PM »

Here we go with MexRev Phase III


« Last Edit: October 30, 2005, 03:21:56 PM by cigar joe » Logged

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« Reply #23 on: October 30, 2005, 04:56:09 PM »

And again follow the numbers.....

1. Carranza is installed at the palace in Mexico City as a
    temporary provisional President.

2. At a meeting between Obergon and Villa they agree
    that Carranza should step down as soon as a
    president is chosen by a Constitutionalist
    Convention. This defuses the situation
    temporarily.

3. Maytorena the self exiled Governor of Sonora returns
    from Arizona recruits an army and resumes control.

4. Villa & Angeles side with Maytorena, Obregon returns
    goes to Chihuahua to again try and negotiate. Villa
    threatens to have him shot, Villa then changes his
    mind and lets him go back to Mexico City.

5. At the Constitutionalist Convention in Aguascalientes
    Gutierrez is named provisional president and
    he appoints Villa as his general.

6. Carranza heads for the recently evacuated by the US
    port of Vera Cruz,  Obregon begins to organize his
    army.

7. Zapata arrives in Mexico City with his army of
    peasants after the departure of Carranza.

8. In December 1914 Villa & Zapata meet for the first
    time in Xochimilco and they both ride side by side into
    the captitol.

9. In January 1915 Gutierrez flees Mexico City after he is
    implicated in a plot with the Carranistas.

10. Obregon defeats some Villista troops at Puebla and
      Villa retreats back to his main force at
      Aguascalientes. Angeles the only real military
      general with a military background in Villa's command
      urges Villa to immediately attack Carranza in Vera
      Cruz and cut off supplies to Obregon. Villa ignors
      this advice.

11. Zapata's peasant cavalry cuts off food supplies to
      Mexico City. But Villa wastes time attacking
      Carranistais in Coahuila and Nuevo Leon. Obregon
      resupplied and reorganized reconstitutes his supply
      routes. Zapata heads back to his guerrilla tactics.

12. Orgegon having studied military reports comming
      from Europe on the fighting that has broken out in
      France during WWI learns that with troops massed
      in trenches, barbed wire and plenty machinegun
      emplacements, massed cavalry charges that Villa is
      addicted too are rendered obsolite. Obregon picks
      the town of Celaya with its many irrigation ditches
      to set up deffences.

13. Villa attackes Celaya rather than just go around and
      cutting off Obregons supply routes. Three
      disasterous cavalry charges in three days. Villa
      sufferes major defeat.

14. Villa retreats fighting at Aguascalientes and Torreon
      his basic tactic of massed cavalry attacks no longer
      work. Villa continues to head North but his army is
      shrinking. The US is now backing Carranza

15. From his base in Chihuahua Villa decides to retreat
      to relatively peacful Sonora there he plans to raise
      money from cattle sales to US to finance arms &
      ammo. He undergoes a harsh winter march across
      the Sierras. General Fierro (The Butcher) rides his
      horse into a bog and both him and horse are sucked
      from sight. In Sonora he attempts to attack the state
      capitol at Hermisillo that has a garrison of
      Carranistas again with a mass cavalry attack
      and again he is defeated. In the meanwhile the US
      lets Obregon pass on trains through US teritory with
      6000 troops to fortify the Carranza garrison of
      1200 troops at the Mex/Arizona border town of
      Aguas Prieta. When Villa attacks he is supprised by
      the size of the garrison and he learns of the new US
      policy, he swears vengence against the US and US
      interests in Mexico.

16. Villa with whats left of his forces heads back across
      the Sierras to Chihuahua. In Chihuahau Villa sees
      the writting on the wall and disbands most of his
      army except his Dorados and vows to keep up a
      guerilla war against Carranza..... to be continued.

« Last Edit: October 31, 2005, 04:31:46 AM by cigar joe » Logged

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« Reply #24 on: October 31, 2005, 04:41:26 AM »

Found another book on Villa that tells you eveything you've wanted to know and more about Villa its title is
"Life & Times of Pancho Villa" by Friedrich Katz this is a hefty volume 2 1/4 inches thick 900+ pages, lol, keeping me busy, but almost finnished now I can at least surmise what likely periods or Phases of the MexRev most of the Zapata's took in.

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« Reply #25 on: November 06, 2005, 03:24:31 PM »

MexRev Phase III continued.....

17. Villa figures out that in the same way the
      Carannza's camp benefitted by nationalistic 
      Mexican pride when the US temporarily took over
      the Mexican seaports, he would do the same in
      Chihuahua if he could get the US to invade. He
      attacks Columbus New Mexico.

18. General ohn Pershing with George S. Patton,
      invades Chihuahua on a wild goose chase with
      30,000 troops and a squardron of nine airplanes
      looking for Villa. Eventually US Mexican relations
      become strained and Pershing is limited by
      President Wilson to the area of northern Chihuahua
      which Villa stays out of he regains some of his     
      momentum and captures towns in Southern
      Chihuahua but a lot of his old generals are dead or
      deserted.

19. Zapata is tricked by a Carranza'General who to lay a
      trap for Zapata, actually ambushes his own men to
      prove that he wants to defect with his command he
      arranges a meeting place and assassinates Zapata.

20. Villa has trouble recruiting men after almost ten
      years of revolution, Chihuahua is depleted of cattle
      and rich haciendas from the war which were his
      sources of income for his men and for arms. he
      makes a mad 700 mile dash across the great Bolson
      de Mapimi desert with his band to the rich relatively
      untouched state of Coahuila and
      captures the town of Sabinas which sits astride the
      main railway link to the coal fields and near the oil
      fields of Tampico. Its a brilliant chess move and the
      provisional president who is in charge after
      Carannza's assasination offers a deal to Villa to lay
      down his arms in return for a hacienda and a
      government paid body guard in 1920. Villa is
      assassinated in 1923.
     

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« Reply #26 on: November 07, 2005, 09:16:54 PM »

I have one correction, when Villa escapes from the Mexico City Jail he goes to the West coast to get a boat for the US and travels across Arizona & New Mexico to El Passo.

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« Reply #27 on: November 14, 2006, 09:57:43 AM »

http://pic20.picturetrail.com/VOL1612/7186524/13731420/204859988.jpg

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« Reply #28 on: November 14, 2006, 03:20:54 PM »

Fixed it for you, cool picture, give us some info about it ;-),  the image goes between the two sets of brackets.

 

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« Reply #29 on: November 15, 2006, 03:04:20 AM »


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